This assignment presents a summary of your identified racial (AFRICAN AMERICANS), ethnic, or cultural group and the microaggressions they face in society. For this assignment, you will write a paper of 4–5 pages (excluding the cover page and references list).
For this assignment, complete the following:
References: 2 references related to disenfranchised racism
Esposito, L., & Romano, V. (2014). Benevolent racism: Upholding racial inequality in the name of black empowerment. Western Journal of Black Studies, 38(2), 69-83. Retrieved from http://library.capella.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.proquest.com%2Fdocview%2F1612357759%3Faccountid%3D27965
Esposito, L., & Romano, V. (2016). Benevolent racism and the co-optation of the black lives matter movement. Western Journal of Black Studies, 40(3), 161-173. Retrieved from http://library.capella.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.proquest.com%2Fdocview%2F2049976066%3Faccountid%3D27965
References (2 Capella Microagression journal articles)
Payton, F. C., Yarger, L. (., & Pinter, A. T. (2018). (Text)mining microaggressions literature: Implications impacting black computing faculty. The Journal of Negro Education, 87(3), 217. Retrieved from http://library.capella.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.proquest.com%2Fdocview%2F2164512121%3Faccountid%3D27965
Tao, K. W., Owen, J., & Drinane, J. M. (2017). Was that racist? an experimental study of microaggression ambiguity and emotional reactions for Racial–Ethnic minority and white individuals. Race and Social Problems, 9(4), 262-271. doi:http://dx.doi.org.library.capella.edu/10.1007/s12552-017-9210-4
MY UNIT4 SUBMISSION FOR REFERENCE
Unit4Disc1 (African American)
According to researchers and academics of color, they have been revisiting and expanding on the construct of microaggression, which was first described by psychiatrist Chester Pierce in the late 1960s and applied at that time specifically to racial assaults on African Americans. Pierce initially used the term offensive mechanisms, defined as words and behaviors used by individuals from the dominant group to keep African Americans in social and structural positions of insignificance. These processes were seen as subtle new forms of racism that when perpetuated and occurring in multiple environments are cumulative assaults on the individual and become psychopollutants fostering oppression and disempowerment, contributing to the erosion of self-concept, and, ultimately, resulting in poor psychological well-being. Offensive mechanisms were later termed racial microaggression, and researchers subsequently broadened the application to other people of color and other marginalized groups.
A worrisome element of microaggression is the systemic, everyday, and cumulative impact of communication behaviors on the recipient. Verbal communication behaviors are words and phrases used, and nonverbal behaviors include actions, emotions, attitudes, and body language. Understanding the impact of this construct on individuals and groups, and developing strategies to counter microaggressions when received, has been identified as critical elements associated with stress and vulnerabilities and can contribute to perpetuation or elimination of health disparities. Microaggression targets individuals or groups and can be directed at issues of race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, or socioeconomic status; it targets and attempts to use differences that exist between the sender and the receiver of the message as the vehicle of derogation and control.
There are many instances when microaggressions and stereotyping are used to degrade others. I have chosen to explore that of gender aspersions. Many times in the American culture, women who are assertive, are instinctively classified as a “bitch”, while the male counterpart is described as “forceful leader”. The American expectation of women is that they should be passive and allow men to be the primary decsion makers. Many times female physicians wearing stethoscopes are mistaken for nurses because in Ameican culture the expectation is that women should occupy nurturing occupations and are less capable than men. Yet another microaggression plaguing the female gender is the timeless, catcall and whistles that are heard from men when women walk down the street. The hidden message here is that women are for vanity and their appearance is simply for the enjoyment of men’s visual pleasure. According to women, gender microaggressions occur frequently and they devalue their contributions, objectify them as sex objects, dismiss their accomplishments, and limit their effectiveness in social, educational, employment, and professional settings (Banaji & Greenwald, 1995; Benokraitis, 1997; Morrison & Morrison, 2002).In the world of work, for example, many women describe a pattern of being overlooked, disrespected, and dismissed by their male colleagues. During team meetings in which a female employee may contribute an idea, the male CEO may not respond to it or seemingly not hear the idea. However, when a male co-worker makes the identical statement, he may be recognized and praised by the executive and fellow colleagues. It has been observed that in classrooms, male students are more frequently called upon to speak or answer questions by their teachers than are female students. The hidden messages in these microaggressions are that women ’s ideas and contributions are less worthy than their male counterparts (Thomas, 2017).
Thomas, A. J., & Schwarzbaum, S. (2017). Culture and identity: Life stories for counselors and therapists (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
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