Understanding Specific Needs in Health and Social Care

Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Task One. 4

1.1 Analyze concepts of disability, illness, and behavior in relation to Health and social care service users. 4

1.2 Assess how perceptions of specific needs have changed over time. 5

1.3 Analyze the impact of legislation, social policy, society, and culture on the ways that services are made available for individuals with specific needs. 6

Task Two. 7

2.1 Analyse the care needs of individuals with specific needs. 7

2.2 Explain current systems for supporting individuals with specific needs. 8

2.3 Evaluate the services available in a chosen locality for individuals with specific needs. 9

Task Three. 10

3.1 Explain the approaches and interventions available to support individuals with specific needs. 10

3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies for individuals with specific need(s). 11

3.3 Discuss the potential impact of emerging developments on support for individuals with specific needs. 12

Task Four 13

4.1 Explain different concepts of challenging behavior. 13

4.2 Describe the potential impact of challenging behaviour on health and social care organisations. 13

4.3 Analyse strategies for working with challenging behaviours associated with specific needs. 14

Conclusion. 14

References. 16

 

Introduction

. The needs of every individual vary depending on their problem and status in the society as well as his or nature. Individuals who are vulnerable or less privileged in the society tend to have many challenges, and that’s they need special services. In this regard, such people need specific help or service so as to help them realize their specific needs. Most people who are vulnerable are the elderly and children plus those who have disease conditions, especially the mental ones. Most studies have explained that London has an ageing population that has been increasing since 1930s (Dorling, Thomas, &Raco, 2004, p. 7). From the McClean, Radcliffe, Sullivan,& Ahmed-Jushuf’s (2013) findings, the aged population above sixty years of age is currently 20% of the whole population. Addressing the specific needs of the population has been so hard for the NHS. This report will focus on the specific needs of such a population in addition to evaluation and discussion of case examples that are related to health and social care.

Task One

1.1 Analyze concepts of disability, illness, and behavior in relation to Health and social care service users.

Disability

Disability refers to health conditions or physical impairments, which restricts individuals in leading normal lives and receive appropriate vocation, recreations, and education among others(Donoghue, 2003). On the same line, an individual has a disability if he or she has either physical or psychological impairments that hinder normal life in daily functions. Social and health workers should possess adequate knowledge about the disabilities so that they can help the affected persons.

Illness

According to WHO (1975), health is the state of complete mental, social, and physical well-being and not merely the lack of infirmity or disease. If the body fails to be in good health, then illness is the resultant condition. Illness is a state of an individual having disorders or disabilities that make individuals impaired for either a short or prolonged time. Health and social care workers should use their skills in order to help individuals from with these conditions since they need to depend on others for their survival.

Behavior

 

Behavior is the range of mannerisms and actions made by people in relation to themselves and the environment that includes the other individuals and inanimate things(Straus & Kantor, 2005). There are many behavioral issues that occur in people with specific needs as far as health and social care are concerned. Behavior changes among these individuals results in depression and mental illnesses. Also, because of their vulnerability, people can take advantage of them by abusing them. They can withdraw from social activities or even suffer injuries of abuse.

 

1.2 Assess how perceptions of specific needs have changed over time.

In the ancient times, people didn’t have adequate knowledge and technology in handling specific needs of the affected individuals who need either health or social care services or both (WHO, 2007).In the modern world, the perception of health, illness, and disability has changed as a result of the integrated and advanced changes that have occurred in the health sector.Although disabilities have taken many forms, the healthcare industry has modalities put in place with the aim of providing not only affordable, but also quality services to offer a solution to the existing problems. However, there are some mistreatments that can occur at the health facilities such as failure to give quality care to individuals seeking such care as well as failure to address key issues that need attention among others (WHO, 2007). A good example is for the case of Baby Peter, who was failed by almost all agencies yet she was abused and injured by Barker.

1.3 Analyze the impact of legislation, social policy, society, and culture on the ways that services are made available for individuals with specific needs

There are legislations concerning health and social care facilities that have been in existence, which are amended from the time to suit the needs of the general population (Marmot et al., 2008). With such in place, the healthcare services are now cheaper and affordable for most people in the country. On the other hand, there are other Acts, which have had a lot of impact in the provision of care to individuals with specific needs. An example is the Health Act 1999 that has three powers for the providers of both health and social care services. The powers are to develop the leading commission arrangements, create integration of providers of services and pool their budgets; all these are instrumental in ensuring that the people receive quality health care from the service providers. In addition, the Mental Capacity Act Deprivation of Liberty safeguards, which has given individuals with mental and other conditions an opportunity to receive good care and proper safeguards against any unlawful acts like unlawful detention such as the one for HL in the case study (Wadsworth, 2009, p. 46). In the history, there have been some religions and cultures that have been known to ban their members against seeking care from healthcare facilities. They mostly believed in supreme beings for natural healing, and this had a lot of impact on the provision of services to individuals with specific needs. However, most people have realized the importance of seeking help from the healthcare facilities without much consequence from their cultures and religions.

Task Two

2.1 Analyse the care needs of individuals with specific needs.

Baby P was raped and mistreated by her mother’s boyfriend, Steven Barker and sustained injuries that finally resulted in her death. She had swallowed her tooth after being punched. In addition, Baby P had facial injuries, broken ribs and back among other injuries. Individuals who have been raped may have both medical and psychological problems like post-traumatic stress disorder among others. The Graham Bradman’s report revealed that despite all these problems, every agency failed in one way or the other. In fact, some serious injuries like the fractures were all missed while the child was at all the mentioned healthcare facilities. Such an affected person with this problem has many care needs that should be addressed within and out of the care facility.

The first thing is to assess the problems that the child/patient has before coming up with a strategy of how to handle them. In the assessment phase, one should create a person-centered approach as explained in the nursing and midwifery council code of conduct (Goddard& Smith, 2001). After the assessment, the child should be treated for all the conditions such as treatment of pain with the use of appropriate pain-relieving drugs. Another strategy is to handle the fractures so that the child can recover from the physical injuries in addition to offering psychological care because off the trauma that the child went through, which can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder. On the same line, the care agencies including the police should have a role to play in the prevention of further injury and abuse to the child by handling the case in time and appropriately. Such a thing didn’t happen in the case of Baby P, something that made her suffer for eight months and eventually die. In addition, the healthcare facilities failed to realize the health problems and needs that the child had, until when a postmortem was done.

2.2 Explain current systems for supporting individuals with specific needs.

The government has some strategies and systems that it has put in place, with an aim of promoting health among its people. For instance, there is the Community Engagement strategy in order to improve the communities’ health status. The major aim of consulting and engaging with the community regarding healthcare issues has been the responsibility of the trust care commissioners, according to Dean (1996). The commissioners should work closely and hand in hand with all the authorities, voluntary organisations, and agencies in strategic partnership with the aim of developing arrangements so as to improve not only the wellbeing, but also the health of the local communities.

On the same line, there is the Health Promotion Strategic Framework Model, which is the first national framework, aiming at the promotion of the people’s health and wellbeing (Montano et al., 2008). The model has five approaches that cater for the community and its education and health services. The core purpose of the model is to:

  • Develop multi-sectoral approaches so as to address inequalities in health and its social determinants.
  • Enhance health promotion activities and practices.
  • Increase the capacity of the appropriate organisations with an aim of improving the health status across the social ladder within the society.
  • Obtain and improvement in the protection and promotion of health among the people.

2.3 Evaluate the services available in a chosen locality for individuals with specific needs.

There are various services at any one of the health and social care facilities, which are provided by the trained professionals in different fields of health.An example of a health facility in the case of Baby P is the NHS hospital, in which she received some healthcare services. The care facility has different professionals including the health and social ones. The services provided by the general practitioners and other healthcare professionals at the facility include medical services such as assessing the health and medical needs of the patients before treating them appropriately. Baby P was assessed in the hospital, and some of the injuries were noticed including the abuse signs that she had; the facility also provided medical care by treating the noticed health problems. The facility also provides legal services, through reporting of cases of abuse to relevant authorities so that the victims can receive their justice. In the case, the Healthcare professionals identified that the baby was abused, and this prompted them to report the issue to the police who went up to arrest the rapist. However, the police failed to protect the victim for further abuse until the baby died, in the long run. Furthermore, the healthcare facility provides social care services as well. A good example was when the social worker realized that the patient was abused, he reported to the police in a way to enhance the victim’s wellbeing. The role of social care workers is to enhance the social lives of those people in the society who have social care needs, including the ones with specific needs(Asquith, Clark, & Waterhouse, 2005).

Despite there being all these services, the healthcare facility and other related agencies failed in the provision of the same services. For instance, the healthcare facility failed to get the major injuries like the broken back and ribs among others. In addition, it failed to prevent further problems of abuse to the patient as they were treating the patient and allowing her home, with the same people who had caused the abuse. Such a thing is dangerous to the victim, and it is one of the major reasons that contributed to her death.

Task Three

3.1 Explain the approaches and interventions available to support individuals with specific needs.

There are different approaches that are available for the support of the people with specific needs.One of the approaches is the evidence-based practice, in which individuals who have a health problem receive the services (Sackett D, 2002). For instance, Baby P received medical care in the hospitals that he was taken to by doing an assessment and knowing that she had injuries, which were then treated. This approach integrates scientific evidence, clinical expertise and the perspective of the client and the caregiver in order to provide quality services. Next is the self-help approach in which the individuals with specific needs are supported to help themselves(Bodenheimer, Lorig, Holman, &Grumbach, 2002). In the vase of HL, the patient is said to have known where he can find and pick his favorite juice. This means that HL can help himself in times of need in some instances.Advocacy is the other approach that is important in supporting individuals like HL and Baby P. the healthcare providers advocated the rights of Baby P by reporting the abuse to the police the same to Mr. and Mrs. E who took legal action to have HL released from detention.Advocacy comprises of both approaches and methods of changing practices and behaviors that hinder the development, as well as the rights of the disabled person(Voo& Capps, 2010).

On the other dimension, there are interventions for supporting these vulnerable people such as the medical therapies. In this intervention, the individual is assessed and treated medically depending on the prevailing problems and needs at that moment(Voo& Capps, 2010).More so, there are psychological interventions that help in tackling challenging behaviors like post-traumatic stress disorder like what Baby must have had and autism, for the case of HL. Psychotherapy enables the treatment of suicidal tendencies, anxiety, depression and changes in personality (Wallcraft& Sweeney, 2011). Communication is another intervention between the patient and care providers and with the relevant agencies. For the case of Baby P, there was communication between the hospital and the police among other agencies. Also, the communication between the E family and HL is therapeutic in that HL could pause for a silence of the greeting.

3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies for individuals with specific need(s).

Medical interventions are very effective when it comes to handling of medical conditions(Dean, 1996).However, they weren’t effective in the case of Baby P since the health caregivers failed to assess and notice the serious injuries that were only realised during the post-mortem process. The intervention was poorly implemented in that the facilities failed to understand how much the baby was injured, hence dealing with only minor superficial injuries. On the other hand, psychological care for HL at the health care facility was poor and ineffective in that no one understood the condition that he was going through, leading to his suffering during the detention period. However, it was more effective when he started staying with the E family who understood them and was very cooperative. The other intervention that was used was communication between the patients and care providers as well other agencies. The communication between the police and the hospital in the case of Baby P was effective in that once the hospital notified the police of the abuse case; the culprits were arrested meaning that it beared fruits. On the other hand, the communication for the case of HL and the care facility was poor because he couldn’t object whatever was imposed on him since he didn’t have the capacity to talk.

3.3 Discuss the potential impact of emerging developments in support for individuals with specific needs.

Some of the emerging developments revolve around medical and technological advances as well as some changes in the legislations and policies within and outside the country. There is some tension that has a lot of impact like preference versus choices, rights versus protection of self and others, risk and autonomy as well as remedial therapy and needs alleviation. Some policies bring a dilemma in tackling some cases on supporting individuals with specific needs. A good example is the green document that emphasizes the importance of social welfare by cooking healthy meals, and it’s used by the external agencies and some local ones in stabilisation of the vulnerable people’s health. With such in place, people like HL will have good health if taken care of.

On the other hand, legal developments have a great impact as well. For instance, the new Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards that was introduced in 2009 will help prevent the experiences that HL went through by safeguarding the vulnerable people including those who have suffered mental conditions (Goddard & Smith, 2001). Such legal developments will help the vulnerable population like the raped Baby P and the mentally sick HL avoid suffering that they might go through and should one violate the law, then it will be treated as a criminal case.

Task Four

4.1 Explain different concepts of challenging behavior.

Challenging behaviors are also called socially unacceptable behavior and is used in defining extensive ranges of behaviors exhibited by people with learning and communication problems (Chandler&Dahlquist, 2014). The behavior poses a great challenge to those who take care of the individuals like parents, teachers and professionals in health and social care facilities(Sailor, 2009, p.49),Therefore, the person with such a problem is not a problem by himself and can’t be termed as a challenge to the society. This behavior shows that there is some condition or problem with the individual that needs to be sorted out or addressed. According to Sailor (2009, p.49), challenging behavior is that which has a repeated pattern and interferes with the normal functioning of the person with his or her peers and the rest of the society. Such behavior may likely cause harm to other people who can be around the affected person resulting in his or her limitation of fulfilling several aspects of life. This phenomenon of the behavior is likely the one that made HL detained in the Bournewood Hospital in the Bournewood Case.

4.2 Describe the potential impact of challenging behaviour on health and social care organisations.

Challenging behavior can impact the health and social care organizations in many ways such as straining the economic resources in order to tackle the problem. The organizations have to strain financially in caring for the individuals with challenging behavior by doing many things such as building sites special sites and places for these people to stay as well as other materials and equipment that can be used. In addition, they can strain by employing professionals who are trained in providing quality health and social care, who may need more funds for their remuneration. On the same line, the professionals will require costly continuous training so that they can keep pace with modern advances in technology.

4.3 Analyse strategies for working with challenging behaviours associated with specific needs.

In the current world, there is an alarming increase in the number of individuals who exhibit challenging behaviours(Chandler&Dahlquist, 2014). With such a rise, the best strategy will be to expand the already existing facilities in addition to building new ones so as to accommodate the increasing number. In addition, there is need to increase the number of professionals in the field in order solve the challenges of inadequate personnel. Such a thing will lead to the delivery of quality care, just like continuous training of the professionals while on work to impart them with necessary skills that are at par with technological advances. The other strategy will be taking stern action to those who violate the rights and privileges of the vulnerable members of the society, as it was in the care of BL and the Bournewood Hospital in the Bournewood Case. On the same line, adoption of best strategies by organizations offering care can be something good for the individuals with specific needs.

Conclusion

In the society, there are many individuals who have are vulnerable to abuse because of theirdisabilities and health conditions. Such individuals’ rights should be respected, and they should receive the care that they deserve. The health and social care workers among other people should ensure that such individuals with specific needs receive quality care. In the case of a problem, the care providers as well as those who stay with the individuals should take stern action such as taking the issue to the police or the court or the most appropriate authority. Should there be any violation of vulnerable people’s rights, and then the culprits should be punished. Finally, the organisations providing care should work hard and enhance the care provided to the people with challenging behaviour and in need of specific needs.

References

Asquith, S., Clark, C. L., & Waterhouse, L. (2005). The role of the social worker in the 21st century: A literature review. Scottish Executive Education Department.

Bodenheimer, T., Lorig, K., Holman, H., &Grumbach, K. (2002). Patient self-management of chronic disease in primary care.The Journal of the American Medical Association?, 288(19), 2469-2475.

Chandler, L. K., &Dahlquist, C. M. (2014). Functional assessment: Strategies to prevent and remediate challenging behavior in school settings. Pearson Higher Ed.

Dean, K. (1996). Using theory to guide policy relevant health promotion research.Health Promotion International, 11(1), 19-26.

Donoghue, C. (2003). Challenging the authority of the medical definition of disability: An analysis of the resistance to the social constructionist paradigm. Disability & Society, 18(2), 199-208.

Dorling, D., Thomas, B., &Raco, M. (2004). People and places: A 2001 Census atlas of the UK. Bristol: Policy Press.

Goddard, M., & Smith, P. (2001). Equity of access to health care services: Theory and evidence from the UK. Social science & medicine, 53(9), 1149-1162.

Marmot, M., Friel, S., Bell, R., Houweling, T. A., Taylor, S., & Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. The Lancet, 372(9650), 1661-1669.

McClean, H., Radcliffe, K., Sullivan, A., & Ahmed-Jushuf, I. (2013). 2012 BASHH statement on partner notification for sexually transmissible infections. International journal of STD & AIDS, 24(4), 253-261.

Montano, D. E., Kasprzyk, D., Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., &Viswanath, K. (2008). Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model.

Straus, M. A., & Kantor, G. K. (2005). Definition and measurement of neglectful behavior: some principles and guidelines. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(1), 19-29.

Voo, T. C., & Capps, B. (2010). Influenza pandemic and the duties of healthcare professionals. Singapore medical journal, 51(4), 275-281.

Wadsworth, A. (2009). Mental Capacity Act Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards. Journal of Integrated Care, 17(6), 46-47.

Wallcraft, J. and Sweeney, A. (2011).User Involvement in Adult Safeguarding: SCIE Adults’ Services Report 47. Social Care Institute for Excellence.

World Health Organization (1975). Education and treatment in human sexuality: the training of health professionals, report of a WHO meeting [held in Geneva from 6 to 12 February 1974].

World Health Organization (Ed.). (2007). International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Children & Youth Version: ICF-CY. World Health Organization.

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