Retrospective study of lung cancer and tobacco smoking

Table 2.11 refers to a retrospective study of lung cancer and tobacco smoking among patients in several English hospitals. The table com­pares male lung cancer patients with control patients having other diseases, according to the average number of cigarettes smoked daily over a 10-year period preceding the onset of the disease.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Retrospective study of lung cancer and tobacco smoking
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

a. Find the sample odds of lung cancer at each smoking level and the five odds ratios that pair each level of smoking with no smoking. As smoking increases, is there a trend? Interpret.

b. If the log odds of lung cancer is linearly related to smoking level, the log odds in row i satisfies log(oddsi)= α -βi. Show that this implies that the local odds ratios are identical.

c. Using these data, can you estimate the probability of lung cancer at each level of smoking? Are the estimated odds ratios in part (a) meaningful? Explain.

d. Show that the disease groups are stochastically ordered with respect to their distributions on smoking of cigarettes (see Problem 2.34 and Section 7.3.4). Interpret.

TABLE 2.11 Data for Problem 2.18


Disease Group

Daily Average

Lung Cancer


Number of Cigarettes


















50 +




Source: Reprinted with permission from R. Doll and A. B. Hill, British MedJ2: 1271-1286(1952.

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more