Respond to both | PSY 335 | Southern New Hampshire University

Intelligence has become a word with so many meaning that finally it has none and intelligence is what the tests test. Decades after the symposium was first held, Wesman (1968, p. 267) concluded that there appeared to be “no more general agreement as to the nature of intelligence or the most valid means of measuring intelligence today than was the case 50 years ago. Intelligence emphasizes positive interpersonal skills such as being polite, helpful, nice and an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, to deal effectively with his environment. Is global or aggregate because as stated in our reading is composed of elements or abilities which, though not entirely independent, are qualitatively differentiable. By measurement of this ability we ultimately evaluate intelligence. 

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Intelligence is very challenging to study due to being defined and measured in different ways. Intelligence is strongly influenced by environment although both the genetics and the environment play a big role in determining intelligence. Determining is a matter of how much of an influence each factor has, just in the study of the twins which 40 to 80% of the variance in the IQ ids linked to genetics. The factors behind parenting, the environment a child is related, education, nutrition all contribute to intelligence. The two factors such as primary-verbal factors and performance-based in nature are a largely manner of historical interest. The genetic factors underlie 50 percent of the difference in intelligence among individuals. The person’s genes and environment influence each other and would be challenging to tease apart the effects of the environment from those to the genetics. Genes do have an influence over school performance, and it can easily have eighty percent and up on student academic performance. The environmental factors play a huge role as well in levels of academic achievement. Family, education, peer group and enriched social environment all will have been linked to differences in IQ. Just how the studies had found that first-born child tend to have higher IQ than later born siblings. Kids that comes from a supportive, stimulating families and motivated peers have an advantage while the ones that comes from a bad environment from an effect of trauma and malnutrition it can compromise the brain development.  Measured intelligence very because of factors related to measurement process and few of the many factors can affect measured intelligence, the amount of feedback the examiner gives the examinee (Vygotsky, 1978). The amount of practice coaching the examinee has had and the competence the person interpreting the test data. Risk are associated with genetics test because the individual emotional, social even financial consequences can determine poor performance in educational practice. The external environment effects of certain drugs, poverty can be a high risk for a child performance in school and a reason to drop off. Culture has also a lot to do with how an individual perceive and think and culture enable people to survive both physically and socially in order to master or have control of the world around them (Chinoy, 1967).     

References:

Coyle, T. R. (2015). Relations among general intelligence (g), aptitude tests, and GPA: Linear effects dominate. Intelligence, 53, 16–22. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1016/j.intell.2015.08.005

Chand, K., & Darolia, S. K. (2017). A study of relationship between multiple intelligences, interests and aptitudes. Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing, 8(11), 1340.

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The nature/nurture debate has always piqued my interest, especially regarding intelligence and aptitude. I believe that intelligence and aptitude test scores are determined with a mix of genetic and environmental influences (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2018). As Author Derek Bickerton says, “Given this lack of scientific understanding, it is hardly surprising that the debate has lasted so long and aroused so much unscientific passion” (1995). Until the human race has a better grasp on the brain and it’s functions, this topic will continue to be a debate. Genotype-environment covariance, where cognitive abilities and knowledge dynamically feed off each other, is a popular opinion among some researchers (Kaufman, 2013). Nature and nurture work together to create growth and intelligence. 

If intelligence is mostly genetically determined, the education practice and policy would have to adjust to teaching people based on their genetic compositions. Currently, we teach the majority of the people as if they’re on the same playing field, but genetic implications would create an uneven playing field and need for more separation. At a young age, people would realistically be measured on their genetic intelligence and thus put into a category. Francis Galton’s creation of eugenics is a prime example of the dangerous implications of separating people based on genetic composition (Crash Course, 2014). The American Psychological Association’s Ethical Code of Conduct would need to play a major factor in keeping the education system ethical, as outlined by section 3.01: unfair discrimination (American Psychological Association (APA), 2017). 

If intelligence and aptitude is mostly environmentally determined, the education practice and policy would have to adjust to teaching people based on their environment. I feel like education is already leaning this way, due to the schools in each environment being restricted by environmental access (Kaufman, 2013). For example, schools in poorer neighborhoods will  reflect a lack of financing in their education system compared to schools in wealthy neighborhoods in which families donate their money. However, section 3.01 of the APA Ethical Code of Conduct still plays a role in not discriminating (APA, 2017). If intelligence and aptitude are mostly environmentally learned, ideally, (but not practically) the government would put more effort into providing the resources for each school to give equal opportunity and education (Bickerton, 1995).

Just as most subjective things in life, nothing lies in the black or white, everything lies somewhere on the grey spectrum. 

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