Reconstruction, Race and the New South
Reconstruction, Race and the New South Study Questions
When answering these questions, never respond with the minimum amount of information. Answer fully and completely. Always supply background and context.
1. What was Reconstruction? What were the three unresolved issues following the end of the Civil War that we discussed in class?
2. What did the 13th Amendment do?
3. What role did President Lincoln consider granting to African Americans in his Reconstruction plan? What role would African Americans play in the Reconstruction governments as outlined in President Johnson’s plan? Were the Reconstruction plans of Lincoln and Johnson considered lenient or harsh? How did the Republican-dominated Congress react to these plans?
4. What did the Republican-dominated Congress want to achieve in the South? What was happening in the South that upset Congress?
5. What was the purpose of the Black Codes? What were some of the rights granted to freedmen under the Black Codes? What were some of the rights denied to freedmen under the Black Codes?
6. What were the main rights guaranteed in the 14th Amendment? What was the purpose of the 14th Amendment?
7. What was President Johnson’s reaction to the 14th Amendment? What did Johnson do in the 1866 midterm elections and what was the result?
8. What did the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867 do?
9. How did U.S. Grant win the presidency, i.e. what was his margin of victory? What did this lead the Republican-dominated Congress to do?
10. What did the 15th Amendment to the Constitution do? What were some of the ways in which the states undermined the 15th Amendment?
11. What was the grandfather clause? What was its purpose / whom did it benefit?
12. What was the political make up of southern state and local governments before the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867? What was the makeup of these same governments after the Military Reconstruction Act? Why / how did this come about?
13. How did white southerners feel about the fact that African Americans were being elected to offices throughout the South? Whom did they blame for these circumstances?
14. What were carpetbaggers? Scalawags?
15. What were the origins of the Ku Klux Klan? What was the original purpose of the organization?
16. Once the Klan turned into a terrorist organization, whom did it target and what was it trying to achieve?
17. What were the Enforcement Acts and why were they put into place? Were they successful?
18. What were Redeemer Governments (Redemption)? By what methods did white southern Democrats regain control of state governments?
19. What events led to the Compromise of 1877?
20. What were the terms of the Compromise of 1877?
21. What were the short term and long term consequences of the Compromise of 1877 for African Americans in the south?
22. What was the holding in the Supreme Court case of Plessy v. Ferguson?
23. What is tenant farming? Why was it needed in the South after the Civil War?
24. What were the early benefits and later drawbacks of tenant farming for freedmen?
25. What was the crop lien system and what were its consequences?
26. What were the three primary factors comprising the New South as promoted by Henry Grady? What was the purpose of Henry Grady’s New South concept?
27. Who was Booker T. Washington and what were his views on African Americans and education? What values did he promote at Tuskegee and what kinds of activities did the students engage in?
28. What were Washington’s views on racism? In his speech known as the Atlanta Compromise, how did Washington say whites should compromise, and how should blacks compromise?
29. Was Henry Grady’s concept of a New South successful? How or how not?
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