A formal research essay, including an introduction to the topic that ends with a clear thesis; body paragraphs that each make a separate,coherent point and are supported with evidence in the form of properly cited quotation and summary; and a conclusion that sums up what you have argued. * You must show evidence of critical thinking in your evaluation of the articles’ arguments. Think about who is speaking, what they want us to believe and why, and then evaluate how well the argument is made. * Is the argument logical, well supported, balanced? Does it commits any fallacies? Evaluate the author and publication for their biases. Overall, assess a range of arguments on the topic. * Focus on Chapter 11-12……highlights of these chapters below IMPORTANT 1. You should have a clear thesis of your own and place it in relation to all of the arguments in the research. 2. I will provide the five sources and highlights to focus on from the two chapters above. Keywords and terms: mass media, niche media, sensationalism, bias news, Stereotypes and racism in the news media,Misrepresentation of scientific findings, Government influence and bias Chapter 11 HIGHLIGHTS EVALUATING SCIENTIFIC REPORTS IN THE MEDIA • Who is making the claim? • What are the credentials and funding of the source? • What is the background of the reporter? • Where was the scientific study or findings first published? • How are other authorities in the field responding to the report? • Is the report biased? POINTS TO CONSIDER WHEN POSTING A MESSAGE ON A SOCIAL NETWORK SITE • What is my goal or intention in posting this message? • Who is the recipient of the message? Include both intentional and unintentional recipients in your answer. • What information is being conveyed in the message? • What feelings and attitudes are being communicated in both the verbal and nonverbal messages? • Does the message being posted enhance or move me closer to my life goals? ANALYZING MEDIA MESSAGES • Who created the message? • What is the purpose of the message? • What techniques are used to attract and hold your attention? • What values and points of view are represented in the message? • What was your reaction to the message? • Is your interpretation of the message reasonable and well informed? • How might different people interpret the message? • Is the message biased? • Is the message backed by good reasoning and facts? • What are the possible effects of the message on individuals and society Chapter 12 HIGHLIGHTS ASSUMPTIONS OF SCIENCE: • Empiricism: Sensory experience is the source of truth. • Objectivity: We can study the physical world without bias. • Materialism: Everything in the universe is made up of physical matter. • Predictability: The universe is made up of interconnected causal relationships. • Unity: The universe has an underlying unified dynamic structure. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. Identify the problem 2. Develop an initial hypothesis 3. Gather additional information and refine the hypothesis 4. Test the hypothesis 5. Evaluate the hypothesis on the basis of results of testing or experimentation CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING A SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESIS • Is it relevant to the problem under investigation? • Is it consistent with well-established theories? • Is it the simplest explanation for the problem? • Does it provide a testable and falsifiable explanation of the problem? • Can it be used to predict the outcome of similar events? CRITERIA FOR A WELL-DESIGNED EXPERIMENT • Unbiased: The experiment has checks or uses controls to eliminate the possibility of subject and experimenter bias • Measurement: The measurements used are appropriate and reliable as well as accurate and precise • Replicable: The experiment can be reproduced by other scientists • Generality: The experimental results can be generalized to the population under study Your 5 sources: Smith, Tovia. “The Battle Between The Masked And The Masked-Nots Unveils Political Rifts.” NPR, NPR, 29 May 2020, www.npr.org/2020/05/29/864515630/the-battle-between-the-masked-and-the-masked-nots-unveils-political-rifts. Flaskerud, Jacquelyn H. “Masks, Politics, Culture and Health.” Issues in Mental Health Nursing 41.9 (2020): 846-849. Haischer, Michael H., et al. “Who is wearing a mask? Gender-, age-, and location-related differences during the COVID-19 pandemic.” Plos one 15.10 (2020): e0240785. Howard, Jeremy, et al. “Face masks against COVID-19: an evidence review.” (2020). Mahase, Elisabeth. “Covid-19: What is the evidence for cloth masks?.” (2020).
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