1) The term “positivism” came from the writings of
A) Franz Gall.
B) Auguste Comte.
C) Charles Darwin.
D) Cesare Lombroso.
2) According to Arseneault and Trembley’s recent study of teenage boys in
Canada, minor abnormalities in the shape of the __________ were associated
with an increased risk of psychiatric and behavioral problems.
D) All of the above
3) According to William Sheldon, __________ have the greatest likelihood of
becoming criminal offenders.
4) Research suggests that exposure to the color __________ can calm people
who are feeling angry or agitated.
5) Which of the following variables may moderate the relationship between tem-
perature and criminal behavior?
A) Time of day
B) Season of the year
C) Day of the week
D) All of the above
6) According to Goddard, a tendency toward __________ was inherited.
7) Which of the following is not a characteristic of an XYY male?
A) Shorter than average height
B) Overrepresented in prisons and mental hospitals
C) Less than average intelligence
D) Suffers from acne or other skin disorders
8) The work of __________ contributed to the development of the field of behav-
A) James Q. Wilson
B) Freda Adler
C) Sir Francis Galton
D) Edward O. Wilson
9) According to sociobiologists, the violence and aggressiveness associated with
territoriality is often reserved for
D) family members.
10) Which of the following is not a criticism of sociobiology?
A) There is no rational basis for applying findings from animal studies to hu-
B) It fails to integrate biology into the paradigm.
C) It does not properly depict basic human nature.
D) It does not identify the importance of culture, social learning, and individual
experiences in shaping behavior.
11) James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein wrote
A) Crime and Human Nature.
B) Sisters in Crime.
D) Creating Born Criminals.
12) Which of the following is not one of the early signs or indicators of psychop-
A) Cruelty to animals
B) Teenage pregnancy
13) Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of antisocial personal-
A) Callous unconcern for the feelings of others
B) Prone to blame others for the behavior that brought the patient into conflict
C) A low tolerance to frustration
D) The inability to establish relationships
14) A possible psychogentic cause of antisocial personality disorder is
A) a separation from the mother during the first six months of life.
B) a low state of arousal.
C) a malfunction of some inhibitory mechanisms.
D) none of the above
15) According to Eysenck, a(n) __________ is generally irrational, shy, moody,
16) The concept of __________ holds that the human mind may choose to keep
certain aspects of itself out of consciousness.
17) Giving a good child a toy is an example of a
A) positive punishment.
B) positive reward.
C) negative punishment.
D) negative reward.
18) Under federal law, a criminal defendant found not guilty by reason of insanity
must have a psychological or psychiatric examination and a hearing held
within __________ days after the not guilty verdict.
19) __________ helps police investigators better understand people wanted for
A) Psychological profiling
D) Selective incapacitation
20) The concentric zone model was applied to the study of juvenile delinquency
A) Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld.
B) Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay.
C) W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki.
D) Robert Park and Ernest Burgess.
21) Operation Padlock in New York City was based on the concept of
A) criminology of place.
B) strain theory.
C) deviant subcultures.
D) the ecological school.
22) Relative deprivation theory was proposed by
A) Steven F. Messner and Richard Rosenfeld.
B) Emile Durkheim.
C) Robert Agnew.
D) Robert K. Merton.
23) Neutralization theory is most closely associated with the work of
A) Robert Park and Ernest Burgess.
B) Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin.
C) Gresham Sykes and David Matza.
D) Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson.
24) According to James Clark, the black subculture of violence was created by
generations of __________ violence.
25) According to differential opportunity theory, drug use predominates in the
__________ delinquent subculture.
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