Answer any four questions and respond to them in a coherent essay. (25 points each) You may answer ONE more for 10 extra points. 1. Define defense mechanisms. Name three types, giving examples of how an individual may use each. 2. Discuss the major contributions of any three of the following persons: Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Mary Cover Jones, Carl Jung, Ivan Pavlov. 3. Discuss the differences among negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and punishment, and give an example of each. 4. List the various levels of motives described in Maslow’s hierarchy of motives and discuss how this hierarchy impacts people’s everyday lives. 5. Fully explain three symptoms of schizophrenic disorders. 6. What is personality? According to Freud’s model, what are the characteristics of the id, the ego, and the superego? 7. Describe two types of psychological therapies and their applications. 8. Discuss four stages of Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial personality development and how each influences the other. LA-101 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAMINATION – 2 9. Explain the different types of learning found in classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social or observational learning theory. 10. Describe correlational or experimental research. Give an example and identify the advantages and disadvantages of this research method. 11. Discuss two types of eating disorders, their causes, symptoms, and effects. 12. In detail, explain the purpose and requirements of the APA Code of Ethics that was created after the public uproar over Stanley Milgram’s shock experiment. 13. Choose a method of research and fully describe how the method is developed to investigate the following topic: Can playing video games be related to aggressive behavior in 6-year olds? 14. Discuss the characteristics of intellectual disability, including three possible causes. 15. Discuss learned helplessness. Explain one specific example of this behavior and how it might affect the individual.
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