Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ stories. Respond to at least two with an analysis of how the conditioning did or did not affect their learning. Compare their outcomes with your own and suggest reasons for any variance. Be sure to respond to any queries or comments posted by your instructor. Below there are TWO CLASSMATE STORIES. PLEASE READ CAREFUL BECAUSE A LOT OF PEOPLE ON HERE IS DOING THIS WRONG AND I HAD TO FIX AND IM STILL GIVE YOU ALL GREAT STARS AND ALLOW YOU ALL TO KEEP THE MONEY NOT ANY MORE. SO RESPOND TO MY PEERS/CLASSMATES MEANS TALKING TO THEM, ACTING LIKE YOU ARE ME.
Operant conditioning is a voluntary behavior and classic conditioning is a reflexive behavior. Both of them are ways of reinforcement and help with managing classroom. One great way to help have your classroom work together with your students is to have them come up with classroom rules and the consequences with you. This will have the students think they came up with them all and they know what the rules are and understand what will happen if they don’t. It is a fun way to have your class involved with the way the class is being run.
Negative reinforcement is to help show the students what they are not to do. All reinforcement is helpful to help students learn and understand the classroom rules. Using negative reinforcement helps with behavioral problems within the classroom. The different between positive and negative reinforcement is the way it is exhibited and shown to the students. When things are taken away or even moved it is to help with negative reinforcement. Positive is with words of encouragement and even you can give awards, such as stickers or a treasure box. Working to have the best class is what every teacher works for .
BY: Kristin Moore
Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory states that one can elicit a response by stimuli that would not typically have such a response. Pavlov found that his dogs would salivate before food was even offered to them. They would salivate by hearing his footsteps or by his presence. He found that after continuing to use a bell before he fed the dogs that the sound of the bell would cause the dogs to salivate. One can cause one to react by using conditioned stimulus, such as the bell, to get the response you desire. This would be considered behaviorism. The best example I would have for this would be that a student could learn to like or dislike a class based on the environment. If a teacher is warm and friendly and the class is inviting, then the student will relate good feeling with the class. If the teacher is cold and the environment is one of criticism, then the child may relate dislike to the subject.
Operant conditioning is when a behavior that is naturally demonstrated, operant behavior, is reinforced. Reinforcement can be negative or positive. If a child is doing something that is satisfying to the teacher, then the behavior would be rewarded. However, if the behavior is not desirable then the teacher can properly discipline the child. The idea is that positive reinforcement will cause one to repeat the behavior whereas negative behavior will be eliminated when negative reinforcements are implemented.
Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement both increase the likelihood of an action reoccurring. However, positive reinforcement occurs when a positive reaction is given to such an action. Negative reinforcement is when a consequence is removed. For instance, if a child enjoys a class and does their work they receive praise. Thus they have just experienced positive reinforcement and will likely continue to do well. If a child is afraid of another student, they may skip class to avoid a student. Therefore, negative reinforcement has occurred. The child will feel relieved by avoiding the student and will likely continue to skip class to avoid the student. Punishment is when a positive reinforcement is removed so that one discontinues a certain behavior. This can occur when a teacher takes away lunch break and makes the child eat in the classroom away from the other children, in response to the child talking in class.
BELOW IS MY STORY TO HELP WITH THE STORIES ABOVE (I DON’T NEED FEEDBACK)
Classical and Operant Conditioning
Describe the difference between classical and operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning is where a neutral stimulus elicits an unconditioned response. This happens after the continued pairing of the neutral and unconditioned stimulus (LeFrançois, 2011). An unconditioned stimulus is an action that produces a response without learning. An unconditioned response is an unlearned reaction toward an unconditioned stimulus. For example, when I was in school, whenever the teacher caned me, I would cry due to the pain. The act of caning was the unconditioned stimulus, and the crying was the unconditioned response. Before the teacher caned us, she would call your name angrily and ask you to come to the front of the class. That was the neutral stimulus. After some time, whenever the teacher would call you to the front of the class, one expected a caning and pain. The result of this was us fearing to be called to the front of the class.
Operant conditioning is the changing of voluntary or learned behavior by use of reinforcement. This reinforcement can be positive or negative (Nicholas, 2008). For example, when we were in school, whenever one of us excelled in their exams, they received a present from the teacher. This caused us to study hard and excel in our exams because we anticipated receiving a present. The voluntary behavior was studying for our exams. By use of positive reinforcement, which was a gift, the teacher changed our study patterns. We studied harder so that we could be awarded the prize.
Compare positive and negative reinforcement strategies.
Positive reinforcement strategy is where a person is presented with a motivating item to the subject after exhibiting a desirable behavior, increasing the likelihood of it occurring again. This was evident in the learning process when the teacher would give a gift to the people who passed their exams. This made us study harder to pass the exams. Negative reinforcement strategy is where a stimulus is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. Once the negative stimuli are removed, the desired behavior is increased (Pressley & McCormick, 2007). This was used in our learning process. The math teacher who would cane us realized that we were less responsive to her while teaching and many people disliked math due to the canning. She, therefore, stopped caning us and took to more conventional forms of punishment. She also became nicer to us. This caused us to be more active and to love her class. We improved our performance in math due to this change.
Punishment is amending the environment of a subject so as to discourage a behavior. This is method inhibits the likelihood of behavior by inflicting a negative stimulus once the action occurs. In the schools, whenever we misbehaved we were sent to detention. This reduced the risk of misbehavior among us.
LeFrançois, G. (2011). Psychology for teaching (11th ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Nicholas, L. (2008). Introduction to psychology. Cape Towwn: UCT Press.
Pressley, M. & McCormick, C. (2007). Child and adolescent development for educators. New York: Guilford Press.
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