Chapter01-interdisciplinary science that gathers and analyzes data on


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1. _____ is an interdisciplinary science that gathers and analyzes data on crime and criminal behavior. 

a. Criminology 

b. Theory 

c. Sociology 

d. Law 

2. Criminologists use what is known as the ______ to try to answer the questions they ask rather than simply speculate about the questions. 

a. Scientific procedure 

b. Scientific method 

c. Technique of natural science 

d. Observational analysis 

3. Universally condemned crimes are known as _____. 

a. Mala in se 

b. Mala prohibita 

c. Actus reus 

d. Mens rea 

4. Crimes that are time and culture bound are described as _____. 

a. Mala in se 

b. Mala prohibita 

c. Actus reus 

d. Mens rea 

5. When criminologists study _____, they study individuals who commit harmful acts, regardless of the legal status of those acts. 

a. Crime 

b. Criminology 

c. Criminality 

d. Law 

6. A(n) ______ is a set of logically interconnected propositions explaining how phenomena are related. 

a. Theory 

b. Hypothesis 

c. Ideology 

d. Policy 

7. ______ are specific statements about the relationships that we expect to find between and among factors. 

a. Theories 

b. Hypotheses 

c. Educated guesses 

d. Formulations 

8. _____ is a way of looking at the world, a general emotional picture of how things should be. 

a. Theory 

b. Ideology 

c. Vision 

d. Analysis 

9. During the Progressive Era (from about 1890 to 1920), _____ became the primary disciplinary home of criminology. 

a. Biology 

b. Psychology 

c. Sociology 

d. Theology 

10. Driving twenty-six (26) miles per hour in an area where the speed limit is twenty-five (25) miles per hour would best be described as an act: 

a. Mala in se. 

b. Mala prohibita. 

c. Of over-criminalization. 

d. Of felonious proportions. 

11. Socially harmful acts: 

a. Are deemed to be in need of regulation but not by the criminal law except under exceptional circumstances 

b. Are socially harmful, but not sufficiently so to require the heavy hand of the criminal law 

c. Are considered so socially harmful that they come under the purview of the criminal justice system 

d. Include reneging on a contract 

12. The _____ school of thought emphasizes human rationality and free will in its explanations of criminal behavior. 

a. Biosocial 

b. Classical 

c. Positivist 

d. Psychological 

13. Lombroso’s theory of the born criminal was aligned with which school of thought? 

a. Biosocial 

b. Classical 

c. Positivist 

d. Psychological 

14. Renaissance: 

a. Was a period between approximately 1450 and 1600 

b. Is associated with advances in art, literature, music, and philosophy 

c. Means rebirth, and refers to the rediscovery of the thinking traditions of the ancient Greeks 

d. All the above 

15. When two factors are correlates, it means that: 

a. One of the factors causes changes to the other. 

b. The two factors vary together. 

c. They compose a theory of crime. 

d. They have been socially constructed. 

16. According to Thomas Sowell’s typology, those who have a/an _____ believe that human activities are restricted by an innate human nature that is self-centered and largely unalterable. 

a. Classical vision 

b. Constrained vision 

c. Phrenological vision 

d. Unconstrained vision 

17. According to Thomas Sowell’s typology, those who have a/an _____vision deny an innate human nature, viewing human activities as formed anew in each different culture. 

a. Classical vision 

b. Constrained vision 

c. Phrenological vision 

d. Unconstrained vision 

18. According to John Hagan, which of the following criteria helps us differentiate between real crimes and those which are arbitrary and socially constructed? 

a. Consensus 

b. Harm 

c. Severity 

d. All of the Above 

19. The belief that science can provide answers for everything is most characteristic of the _____ school of thought. 

a. Ideological 

b. Positivist 

c. Progressive 

d. Renaissance 

20. Which of the following is an example of an indirect cost of crime? 

a. Maintenance costs of jails and prisons 

b. Salaries of law enforcement personnel 

c. The purchase of police cars 

d. The expense of private surveillance and security devices 

21. _____ criminologists tend to believe that the only real cause of crime is capitalism. 

a. Atavist 

b. Marxist 

c. Positivist 

d. Classical 

22. Policy: 

a. Is a set of logically interconnected propositions explaining how phenomena are related, and from which a number of     

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