Chicago referencing style 2023

When it comes to academic writing, citations are an integral part of the process. Citations allow you to give credit to the sources you have used in your work and enable readers to locate and verify your sources. Various citation styles are used in academic writing, each with its rules and guidelines. One citation style that has been widely used for decades is the Chicago referencing style.

Also known as the Chicago style, this referencing style has been used for decades by researchers, scholars, and students in various disciplines, including history, literature, and the arts. It offers a comprehensive set of guidelines for formatting citations, including in-text citations and bibliographies, and is known for its flexibility and versatility.

If you want to explore the different aspects of Chicago referencing, including its categories, when and how it is used, and citation examples, this guide is for you. You will learn the differences between the Chicago and Turabian styles, helping you navigate which style best suits your work. So, read on if you are a student looking to master the Chicago reference style.

What is the Chicago referencing style?

The Chicago referencing style is a popular citation style used in many academic disciplines, including history, literature, and the arts. It was named after the University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style was first published in 1906. Since then, the style has undergone several revisions, the latest being the 17th edition, and has been widely used in academic writing for decades.

Chicago referencing is widely recognized for its comprehensive citation and bibliography formatting approach. The style is characterized by using footnotes/endnotes to cite sources and including a bibliography at the end of the document. In addition, it includes rules for formatting titles, page numbers, and other elements of a research paper.

It is highly regarded for its thoroughness, attention to detail, and adaptability to various academic disciplines. Its longevity and continued relevance over the years make it a trusted and respected citation style among scholars and researchers.

How does the Chicago style differ from the Turabian style?

The Chicago and Turabian citation styles are closely related but are not exactly similar. The Turabian style is a modified version of the Chicago referencing style. It was created by Kate Turabian, an editor at the University of Chicago Press, based on the Chicago style. The main difference between the two styles includes:

Purpose

  • The Chicago referencing style is a general style guide that can be used for various publications, including books, articles, and websites.
  • The Turabian style is a simplified version of the Chicago style specifically designed for students and researchers writing papers.

Subheadings

  • The Chicago style does not use subheadings.
  • The Turabian style uses subheadings to break up the text of a paper and make it easier to read.

Emphasis

  • The Chicago style allows for both Chicago-style footnotes and in-text citations.
  • The Turabian style emphasizes the use of footnotes and endnotes.

Other differences

  • The Chicago style has more detailed formatting rules than the Turabian style.
  • The Turabian style provides more guidance on how to cite various sources, including websites, electronic databases, and interviews.

When deciding which style to use, it is essential to consider your assignment’s or publication’s specific requirements. If you are writing a research paper or thesis, you may want to use the Turabian style, designed specifically for academic papers. However, if you are writing a book or other publication, you may want to use the more comprehensive Chicago style.

Categories of the Chicago format

The Chicago format has two main categories: notes, bibliography, and author-date systems. The notes and bibliography method, referred to as the humanities style, is a writing format frequently utilized in literature, arts, and history. In this system, sources are cited in footnotes or endnotes, with the bibliography appearing at the end of the paper. Footnotes or endnotes contain full bibliographic information about the source, including author, title, publication information, and page numbers.

The author-date system, the style of science, is commonly used in the social and natural sciences. In this system, sources are cited in parentheses in the text, with the bibliography appearing at the end of the paper. In-text citations in parentheses include the author’s surname, year of publication, and page numbers where necessary.

Both systems have unique advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of the system largely depends on the discipline and type of source material cited. It is essential to consult with the appropriate style guide or your instructor to determine the appropriate system for your assignment.

When is the Chicago referencing style used?

The Chicago referencing style is used in various academic disciplines, including history, literature, arts, philosophy, and social sciences. It is also commonly used in academic publishing, including books, journals, and articles.

The Chicago style citation is preferred in disciplines that require more detailed referencing, such as history, as it allows for greater specificity and accuracy in citing sources. The style also provides a range of citation options, including footnotes, endnotes, and parenthetical citations, giving writers flexibility in presenting their sources. Here are some examples of when the Chicago style is used:

Research papers 

Research papers typically require extensive use of sources. The Chicago style is a good choice for this type of writing.

Theses and dissertations: 

Theses and dissertations are also typically lengthy and complex pieces of writing that require much research. The Chicago style is, therefore, a good choice for these documents as it requires much more detailed referencing and allows for greater accuracy when citing sources.

Academic books and articles 

Chicago referencing is commonly used in academic publishing, including books, journals, and articles. Many academic publishers require authors to use the Chicago style for their submissions.

The Chicago referencing style is a versatile and widely accepted citation style used in various academic fields. Its flexibility and range of citation options make it a popular choice for researchers, scholars, and students.  If you are unsure whether to use the Chicago referencing style for your writing, it is always best to check with your instructor or advisor.

Chicago referencing style outline

The Chicago style is a widely used citation and formatting style in academic writing. Its comprehensive guidelines for formatting citations, including in-text citations and bibliographies, make it a popular choice for scholars, researchers, and students. The various Chicago referencing style outlines include in-text citation and bibliography formats.

Chicago-style in-text citation

The Chicago-style in-text citation provides readers with essential information about the sources you have used in your work. Chicago-style in-text citations use superscript numbers to indicate the source’s citation in the text, followed by a corresponding citation in the bibliography. When citing a source within the text, the superscript number is placed at the end of the relevant sentence, clause, or phrase.

The corresponding citation in the bibliography should provide full details about the source, including the author’s name, publication date, and page number(s) where the information can be found. These citations are placed in parentheses at the end of the sentence or clause containing the information from the source. For example: (Smith 2003, 36-37).

If there are multiple authors, list the last names of up to three authors in the citation, followed by “et al.” (which means “and others”) and the publication year. If there is no author, use the title of the source instead.

Chicago style bibliography

The Chicago style bibliography is a comprehensive list of sources cited in a paper, arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name. Each citation in the bibliography contains detailed information about the source, including the author’s name, publication year, the source’s title, publication information, and page numbers (if applicable). The citation format varies depending on the source type, such as a book, article, or website.

In the Chicago style bibliography, each citation is formatted with hanging indentation, where the first line is aligned with the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented. Each citation should end with a period, and the bibliography should be double-spaced with a blank line between each entry. The various format citations include:

  • For a book citation, the format follows Author’s last name and first name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
  • For a journal article citation, the format follows the Author’s surname, Author’s name, “Article Name,” Journal Title/name, Journal volume number, Issue number (Year of Publication), and Page range.
  • For online sources, include the date accessed and the URL or DOI. The format follows this Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Website. Publication date or access date. URL.

How to use the Chicago style for citation

The Chicago referencing style has a comprehensive set of guidelines for formatting citations, including in-text citations and bibliographies. Here is how to use the Chicago style for citation, including examples of in-text citations and bibliographies.

Chicago-style citation examples

 

  • Chicago style in-text citation

In-text citations are used to credit the sources you have used in your work within the body of your writing. The Chicago style uses a system of citation known as the author-date system. The author’s name and publication year are included in the in-text citation.

  • Book:

(Author’s last name year)

Example of a book citation:

In-text citation: Climate change is a serious threat to the planet. (Smith 2015)

  • Journal article:

(Author’s last name, year, page number)

Example of a journal article citation:

In-text citation: Climate change is already significantly impacting the environment. (Lee, 2023, p. 23)

If there are multiple authors for a source, the in-text citation should include all authors’ last names and the publication year. If there are more than three authors, only the first author’s last name should be listed, followed by “et al.,” which means “and others.”

Example of a book with multiple authors:

In-text citation: (Author’s last name et al. year)

Example:

(Smith et al., 2018)

When citing a source cited in another work, it is essential to include both references in the citation. This is referred to as a secondary citation.

Secondary Citation Example:

Format: (Name of cited author, cited in [original source], date)

In-text citation: (Jones, cited in Lee 2023)

  • Chicago style bibliography

The Chicago style bibliography lists all the sources you have used in your work, including books, articles, and other materials. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name and includes all the publication details necessary to locate and verify the sources.

  • For a book citation, the format follows Author’s last name and first name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

For example, Bond, James. How to be a multinational spy. New York: Penguin, 2008.

  • For a journal article citation, the format follows Author’s last name and first name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume number, issue number (Year of Publication): page range.

For example, Smith, Jane. “The Pros of Meditation to Clear your Mind.” Journal of Health and Wellness 20, no. 5 (2023): 15-20.

When citing a source in the bibliography, the first author’s name is listed with their last name first, followed by their first name. If there are multiple authors, all names should be listed in the order they appear on the source. In addition to the author’s name, the bibliography citation includes the title of the work, the publication information, and the page numbers of the source.

The Chicago style also includes guidelines for citing other sources, such as online sources, government documents, and interviews. Here are some different types of sources, their policies, and Chicago- style citation examples:

  • Online source:

In-text citation: (Author’s Last name Year, URL)

Bibliography: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Webpage.” Name of Website. Publication date or access date. URL.

For example:

In-text citation: (Smith 2023, https://www.example.com)

Bibliography: Smith, John. “The Chicago Referencing Style.” Chicago Style Association. Accessed April 26, 2023. https://www.example.com.

  • Government document:

In-text citation: (Agency or Organization Name, Year, Page Number)

Bibliography: Agency or Organization Name. Title of Document. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

For example:

In-text citation: (National Institute of Health 2020, 7)

Bibliography: National Institute of Health. “Preventing Spread of Corona” Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2020.

  • Interview:

In-text citation: (Interviewee’s Last name, Year)

Bibliography: Interviewee’s Last Name, First Name. Interview with [ Name]. Date of Interview.

For example

In-text citation: (Brown 2022)

Bibliography: Brown, Sarah. Interview with Jane Doe. January 1, 2022.

  • Blog posts:

In-text citation: (Author’s Last name Year)

Bibliography: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Blog Post.” Name of Blog. Publication date or access date. URL or DOI.

For example:

In-text citation: (Garcia 2021)

Bibliography: Garcia, Maria. “The Most Effective Tools to Use while Working at Home.” Remote Work Blog. January 5, 2021. https://www.remoteworkblog.com/tools-for-working-from-home/.

  • Social media posts:

In-text citation: (Author’s Username Year)

Bibliography: Author’s Name/Username. “Title of Post.” Name of Social Media Platform, Date. URL or DOI (if applicable).

For Example:

In-text citation: (Mhernandez 2023)

Bibliography Example:

Hernandez, Martinez (@mhernandez). “The Advantages of Running.” Twitter. January 4, 2023. https://twitter.com/mhernandez/status/123456789. 

  • Movie:

In-text citation: (Director’s Last Name Year)

Bibliography: Director’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Movie. Production Company, Year.

For example:

In-text citation: (Spielberg 1993)

Bibliography: Spielberg, Steven. Jurassic Park. Universal Pictures, 1993. 

  • Podcast:

In-text citation: (Host’s Last Name Year)

Bibliography: Host’s Last Name, First Name. “Episode Title.” Name of Podcast. Production Company, Date.

For example:

In-text citation: (Brown 2023)

Bibliography: Brown, Michael. “The Importance of Social Media Marketing for Small and Medium-sized Businesses.” The Marketing Podcast. XYZ Media, April 15, 2023. 

  • Online video:

In-text citation: (Author’s Last Name Year)

Bibliography: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Video.” Website. Publication date or access date. URL.

For example:

In-text citation: (Bond 2021)

Bibliography: Bond, James. “How to Tie a Tie.” YouTube. January 1, 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=123456789. 

  • Artwork:

In-text citation: (Artist’s Last Name Year)

Bibliography: Artist’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Work. Year. Medium. Collection or Museum, City.

For example:

In-text citation: (Da Vinci 1503)

Bibliography: Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503. Oil on poplar panel. Louvre Museum, Paris.

The Chicago referencing style is a comprehensive system for formatting citations, including in-text citations and bibliographies. By following these guidelines, you can ensure that your citations are formatted correctly and accurately reflect the sources you have used in your work.

Master Chicago-style Citations with our Essay writing services

The Chicago style is a widely used referencing system, particularly in the humanities and social sciences. It provides comprehensive guidelines for citing various sources, from books and journal articles to blogs and social media posts. The Chicago style also offers flexibility in formatting and is suitable for in-text citations and bibliographies. By using this referencing style correctly, writers effectively acknowledge their sources, avoid plagiarism, and improve the credibility of their work.

As a student, you must understand the Chicago Manual of Style rules and guidelines for accuracy and consistency. If you find mastering the Chicago Manual of Style overwhelming, consider outsourcing your essay to 911 papers.

We understand the importance of referencing and its value in academic writing. As the best essay writing services, we provide high-quality academic papers that are thoroughly researched and appropriately referenced using the Chicago style. Our team of experienced writers and editors ensures that all papers are properly cited, formatted, and free from any plagiarism. Contact us today and take advantage of our services and quickly achieve your academic goals.

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