When the author’s name is part of the sentence structure, the citation consists of the year (in parenthesis) immediately following the name. Use “and others” rather than “et al.” In citations that are totally parenthetical, do not separate author and year with a comma. Use commas to separate publications in different years by the same author. Cite two or more publications of different authors in chronological sequence, from earliest to latest.
Smith (2003) showed that . . . :
. . . minimizes the variances (Chang 2012).
. . . work (Green and others 2011) has shown that . . .
. . . studies (Lucci and Mazzafera 2009, 2011) focused . . .
. . . work (Dawson 1999; Briggs 2004) demonstrated . . .
. . . reaction (Martín and others 2001a, b).
In Reference section
List only those references cited in the text. References are listed alphabetically by the first author’s last name. Single author precedes same author with co-authors. When the authors are identical in multiple references, sequence them by publication date (earliest to latest). Type references flush left as separate paragraphs. Below are examples of the most common types of references; for journal abbreviations and other examples of reference formats, please refer to articles in a recent issue of JFSE or contact the editorial office at [email protected].
Journal article: Author(s). Year. Article title. Journal abbreviation Volume(Issue optional): inclusive pages.
Belcourt LA, Labuza TP. 2007. Effect of raffinose on sucrose recrystallization and texture changes in soft cookies. J Food Sci 72:C65–71.
Note: If the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) of an article available online is known, include it at the end of the reference.
Chapter in book: Author(s) of chapter. Year. Title of chapter. In: Name(s), editor(s). Title of book. Edition or volume, if relevant. Place of publication: Publisher name. Inclusive pages of chapter.
Wypych G. 2004. Plasticizer motion and diffusion. In: Wypych C, editor. Handbook of plasticizers. Toronto: ChemTec Publishing. p 151–70.
Conference Proceedings and Reports: Author(s) or editor(s). Year. Title. Name of conference or publication; place of conference; date(s) of conference. Place of publication: publisher.
WHO. 2000. The medical impact of antimicrobial use in food animals. Report of a WHO Meeting; Berlin, Germany, 13–17 October 1997. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Patent: Name of inventor(s) of the patented device or process; “inventor(s),” assignee. Year or date issued. Title. Patent descriptor [issuing country and patent number].
Liedl FG, Rowe KF, inventors. 2007. Nut butter and related products and method of making same. U.S. Patent 7235277.
Web sites and other internet material: Organization or publisher. Year (if relevant). Title or webpage or database. Edition (if relevant). URL. Accessed year month date.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2004. Review of the State of World Marine Fisheries Resources. General situation of world fish stocks. Available from: http://www.fao.org/newsroom/common/ecg/1000505/en/stocks.pdf. Accessed 2012 March 3.
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